Five methods used for data collection

Five methods used for data collection

Respond to discussion

Include citations/Use in text citation where needed

All sources must be 5 years old or newer

Only needs to be about a paragraph long

More like a discussion rather than a paper

Please add to the discussion in your peer responses with informative responses, instead of posts similar to “great idea! I really agree with you.”

Each response needs to have a citation




POST (Judy)

When conducting research, whether qualitative or quantitative, there are certain procedures and instruments that can be utilized to collect the data. When conducting a quantitative study, there are many different instruments for data collection that may be used. Questionnaires (those that include demographic information, open or closed ended questions and contingent questions) that can either be done in person, electronically or through the mail and utilized, for example, to measure patient satisfaction after a hospital stay. Interviews (in person, on the phone or the internet) which can be utilized to gauge patient perception of hospital stays before and after their stay. Attitude scales – measured by the participant – where they gauge how they are feeling on the particular scale provided, for example, to measure patient pain post-operatively with the use of medication pumps. Q-sorts – different types of statements written on paper which the participant must sort into different categories, ranging from whether they agree strongly, down to how strongly they disagree; the Delphi technique which involves the consensus of a group of experts on the topic that is being studied, for example, experts on pain management and its effects on post-operative patients. Structured observations where the researcher physically observes the participants and records certain reactions either at specific times or throughout the entire phenomenon. Finally, physiologic measures, for example blood pressure readings (“Week 8 Lesson,” 2020).

Similar to quantitative research, qualitative research also utilizes data collection procedures. The first are unstructured or semi-structured interviews. They are more involved then simple yes or no answers and include the patient basically telling their story. For example, the researcher may say to the participant, “Tell me about your experience with the pain management you received post-operatively.” There are also focus group interviews that are conducted amongst a group of participants who are all asked the same set of questions. A joint interview is usually conducted amongst two or more people who generally are familiar with each other, for example, a brother and sister asked about coping strategies after losing their parents. Histories is a technique that involves directly asking participants information about their background or the backgrounds of people they know, for example, asking individuals about their health history. Finally, critical incidents are techniques that either involve giving participants a diary to record particular information that pertains to the study, or unstructured observations in which the researcher observes the participant at different times and records data on those observations (“Week 8 Lesson, 2020).

The best approach to collecting quantitative data for the research question regarding whether music therapy decreases anxiety and/or behaviors in patients diagnosed with Alzheimer’s Disease or dementia, would be a structured observation. Structured observations include the research observing the participants and recording the reactions. It would have to be done through event sampling. In order to truly see a difference in these patients, one must be able to see them in the their environment completely. It is difficult to determine whether their anxiety has truly decreased by observing them at specific times. It would entail the researcher observing the participants on several occasions, for the duration of the music therapy sessions.

For a qualitative research study regarding the same topic, two data collection procedures may be utilized. First, taking histories from the participants families or closest friends would be beneficial to understanding their likes and dislikes regarding music, as well as their temperament prior to their diagnosis of dementia or Alzheimer’s. In addition, unstructured observations would assist the researcher in determining whether their behaviors are triggered randomly throughout the day. Additionally, it would assist in understanding whether their anxiety or behaviors occur less frequently post-music therapy, or if there is no change at all.


Week 8 lesson: Data collecting strategies. (2020). Denver College of Nursing.




Post 2 (Beth)

Collection Instruments in Quantitative and Qualitative Research

Instruments used for quantitative research include any one or combination of probability of random sampling, interviews, survey/questionnaires, document review, and/or observation. In qualitative research, collection instruments are similar in ways of interviews, observations, and documenting; however, qualitative focuses more on experience and the human side and quantitative focuses on hard data and numbers. Combining two or more collection methods enhances the credibility of the study. With either method or a combination of both methods, keeping record or a diary during the study is important to the process to reflect on the process and influence of the researcher. (Bhat, 2019)

A scenario in which both collection procedures could be used would be in finding out if something was done a certain way, or a situation that would provide a better patient outcome whether short-term or long-term. Hard data from quantitative research would provide the number of improved patient outcomes and qualitative research would provide first hand experiences and emotions towards the credibility of the study.

In my proposed research of “If there are harmful long-term effects from prophylaxis use of H2 Blockers” the quantitative research would be to use a random sampling of patients who agree to be in the study. Physical check-ups to include patient health baseline and questionnaire of when the medication was started to determine the sample size. Other medications the patient is taking will need to be included so side-effects from those could be tossed out. Once the sample size is determined, the patient will report changes in health for data collection and using the patient’s feelings and experience through open-ended questions will be included with the qualitative research.



Bhat, A. (2019). Five methods used for data collection. Retrieved from