University of Florida Polycystic Ovary Cyst Syndrome Discussion Response

Description

Please Respond to this Essay: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS). APA format and not less than 200 words.

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder that effects the reproductive system in women. This condition causes the ovaries to produce abnormal amounts of androgens, which are a male sex hormone usually present in women in small amounts (Johns Hopkins Medicine, n.d.). Women with PCOS do not produce enough hormones to ovulate consistently. When ovulation does not occur, the ovaries can develop numerous small cysts (Johns Hopkins Medicine, n.d.). These cysts make the androgen hormones which cause more issues with the woman’s menstrual cycle and cause the symptoms associated with PCOS. However, not all women develop the cysts that give the disorder its name.

The exact cause of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome is not clear, however many women with PCOS have insulin resistance (Johns Hopkins Medicine, n.d.). The buildup of insulin levels can cause higher androgen levels. Another factor that contributes to developing PCOS is low-grade inflammation in which white blood cells produce substances to fight infection, which stimulates polycystic ovaries to produce androgens (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2020). Risk factors for Polycystic Ovary Syndrome include insulin resistance, low-grade inflammation, obesity, and hereditary predisposition (Johns Hopkins Medicine, n.d.). Symptoms of PCOS include irregular periods, enlarged or cystic ovaries, excess body hair, weight gain, acne, thinning hair, infertility, skin tags, discolored or thick patches of skin.

To diagnose Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, the doctor will begin with an overview of the patients medical history and current symptoms. A physical exam will follow including a pelvic exam to check the health of the reproductive organs on the inside and outside of the body (Johns Hopkins Medicine, n.d.). Then an ultrasound and blood tests will be performed. The ultrasound will look at the size of the ovaries, look for the presence of cysts, and look at the thickness of the lining of the uterus (Johns Hopkins Medicine, n.d.). The blood tests will check the levels of androgens as well as other hormone levels. There is no cure for PCOS, however there are treatments available to help mitigate the symptoms. These treatments include a change in diet and activity, which can help the body use insulin more efficiently and help you ovulate normally (Johns Hopkins Medicine, n.d.). Medications can also be prescribed to help your body ovulate normally if you plan to become pregnant. Birth control pills can be used for patients not wanting to become pregnant to control menstrual cycles and lower androgen levels. Diabetes medication may be prescribed to lower insulin resistance (Johns Hopkins Medicine, n.d.). Medications can also be used to treat other symptoms such as hair growth and acne.

Treating Polycystic Ovary Syndrome is important as the condition can cause serious complications. Complications associated with PCOS can include infertility, gestational diabetes, miscarriage, or premature birth (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2020). Other serious health complications include high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, endometrial cancer, and problems with the blood vessels and heart, such as metabolic syndrome (Johns Hopkins Medicine, n.d.). Women with PCOS can also develop sleep apnea, depression, anxiety, and eating disorders (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2020). Polycystic Ovary Syndrome is a common condition that is estimated to affect five to ten percent of women of childbearing age in the Unites States, about five million women (Penn Medicine, 2020)