Share insights on how the factor you selected impacts the pathophysiology of the disorder your colleague selected
Increasing women’s health has always been a main agenda in battling health care issues. Reports show that lack of women’s health has led to many reproductive disorders (Deshpande & Bhat, 2019). Due to its complexity when it comes to the female reproductive system, there are many disorders that one may develop. Endometriosis and Uterine Fibroids are two of the most common that are diagnosed. Endometriosis develops when endometrial cells become dislodged from the uterus during menstruation and become implanted in ectopic sites; as a result, new tissues begin to form outside of the uterus (Hammer & McPhee, 2019). Common sites for growth include fallopian tubes and ovaries. Clinical presentation includes pain in the abdomen and irregular menstruation. Similar in pathology, uterine fibroids develop when myometrium tissue in the uterine grow so large and dense they become benign tumors (Huether & McCance, 2017). Clinical presentation includes but is not limited to abdominal pain and irregular menstruation. Both disorders generally present in childbearing years and are most commonly found on pelvic and vaginal exams. Which makes risk factors of health behaviors very important. Because women of childbearing age are most susceptible, completing regular gynecologic exams and keeping track menstrual flows crucial. Early detection is the best form of action when treating both disorders. References Deshpande, A., & Bhat, R. A. (2019). Women & Sustainable Development Goals-Agenda 2030 Gender Inequality & Women Health Issues from Indian Perspective]. Scholedge International Journal of Business Policy & Governance, 6(4), 30–42. Retrieved from https://search-ebscohost-com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=138059973&site=eds-live&scope=site Hammer, G. D., & McPhee, S. J. (2019). Pathophysiology of disease: An introduction to clinica medicine (8th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education. Huether, S. E., & McCance, K. L. (2017). Understanding pathophysiology (6th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby. There are many disorders of the male and female reproductive system. For the purpose of this discussion post, the female reproductive system will be discussed. The female reproductive disorders of vaginitis and cervicitis will be reviewed, including the similarities and differences of each disorder. Vaginitis can be defined as an inflammation or irritation of the vagina. This is usually caused by an infection, and is characterized by an elevated white blood cell count collected on a wet prep during a pelvic exam. If there is vaginal irritation without the elevated white blood cell count, this can be termed as vaginosis (Huether & McCance, 2017). Common types of vaginitis include vaginosis, yeast infections, and trichomoniasis (Mayo Clinic, 2019a). Causes of vaginitis include STI’s, low estrogen levels (during menopause), and an overgrowth of the normal flora of the vagina. Alterations in the vaginal environment, such as changes in skin integrity, pH, and immune reaction can contribute to the development of vaginitis. In particular, things such as douching, and using soaps and/or feminine hygiene sprays can change the pH in the vagina ultimately leading to a higher risk of infection. Additionally, antibiotics also alter the normal flora in the vagina, increasing the susceptibility of developing a yeast infection. An increase in vaginal alkalinity can also predispose women to developing trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis (Huether & McCance, 2017). Symptoms of vaginitis include vaginal irritation or itching, painful intercourse, painful urination, vaginal bleeding or spotting, and changes in amount, odor, and color of vaginal discharge. Diagnosis includes screening for STI’s, performing a pelvic exam, collecting vaginal swabs, and performing a pH test. Treatment of vaginitis depends on the cause. The common treatment for bacterial vaginosis and trichomoniasis is Flagyl. Yeast infections are treated with antifungals sycg as fluconazole. If vaginitis is caused by vaginal atrophy (low estrogen secondary to menopause), estrogen can be an effective treatment method (Mayo Clinic, 2019a). Cervicitis can be defined as inflammation of the cervix. Two major diagnostic signs of cervicitis include purulent or mucopurulent discharge from the cervix or cervical bleeding stimulated by a cotton swab into the cervix. Similar to vaginitis, cervicitis can be caused by disruptions to the normal vaginal flora, as well as the use of chemicals and substances in the vagina such as douche (Huether & McCance, 2017). In addition, STI’s and allergic reactions from contraceptives or condoms can cause cervicitis (Mayo Clinic, 2019b). Mucopurulent cervicitis is predominately caused by STI’s such as trichomoniasis or chlamydia. Infections such as these cause redness and swelling of the cervix, ultimately causing cervical exudate (Huether & McCance, 2017). Common symptoms include pelvic pain, abnormal vaginal discharge, vaginal bleeding, painful intercourse, and dysuria. Comparable to vaginitis, a pelvic exam and vaginal swabs are collected to diagnose cervicitis. Treatment includes treatment of STI’s and bacterial infections such as bacterial vaginosis through the use of antibiotics (Mayo Clinic, 2019b). Both age and behavior affect vaginitis and cervicitis. Sexually transmitted diseases have the highest prevalence with women ages 15 to 24 years old. Since STI’s are a common cause of both disorders, women between this age range are more predisposed to developing vaginitis and/or cervicitis secondary to STI development. Older women may be more predisposed to the development of one of these disorders due to low vaginal estrogen levels, leading to abnormal flora and risk for irritation (Huether & McCance, 2017). High risk sexual behavior can also increase a woman’s risk for vaginitis and cervicitis. This includes participating in unprotected sex or having multiple sexual partners. Women with a history or STI’s or who have begun having sexual intercourse at a young age are also more at risk for developing cervicitis and vaginitis (Mayo Clinic, 2019b). References Huether, S. E., & McCance, K. L. (2017). Understanding pathophysiology (6th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby. Mayo Clinic. (2019b). Cervicitis. Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/cervicitis/symptoms-causes/syc-20370814 Mayo Clinic. (2019a). Vaginitis. Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/vaginitis/symptoms-causes/syc-20354707 Respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days who selected different disorders or factors than you, in one or more of the following ways: Share insights on how the factor you selected impacts the pathophysiology of the disorder your colleague selected. Offer alternative diagnoses and prescription of treatment options for the disorder your colleague selected. Validate an idea with your own experience and additional research. please respond to each discussion separately thank you
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