Nova Southeastern University Pulmonary Functions Responses Discussion

Question Description

I’m working on a writing discussion question and need a reference to help me understand better.



 Lou is showing signs of, Bronchitis which is an inflammation of the bronchial tubes, the airways that carry air to your lungs. It causes a cough that often brings up mucus. It can also cause shortness of breath, wheezing, a low fever, and chest tightness. There are two main types of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Most cases of acute bronchitis get better within several days. But your cough can last for several weeks after the infection is gone.

The same viruses that cause colds and the flu often cause acute bronchitis. These viruses spread through the air when people cough, or through physical contact (for example, on unwashed hands). Being exposed to tobacco smoke, air pollution, dust, vapors, and fumes can also cause acute bronchitis. Less often, bacteria can also cause acute bronchitis.

Acute bronchitis is the result of acute inflammation of the bronchi secondary to various triggers, most commonly viral infection, allergens, pollutants, etc. Inflammation of the bronchial wall leads to mucosal thickening, epithelial-cell desquamation, and denudation of the basement membrane. At times, a viral upper respiratory infection can progress to infection of the lower respiratory tract resulting in acute bronchitis. (Tanner 2018)

Treatments include rest, fluids, and aspirin (for adults) or acetaminophen to treat fever. A humidifier or steam can also help. You may need inhaled medicine to open your airways if you are wheezing. Antibiotics won’t help if the cause is viral. You may get antibiotics if the cause is bacterial.

Two patient factors that can have lead the patient to this diagnosis could have been the bad cold she had 3 weeks ago as well as her social interactions due to her age most likely she has to be going out and working interacting with different people causing a higher risk for her especially with a low immune system due to the cold she had causing her to be at a higher risk to have contracted bronchitis or even atypical pneumonia.

For those patients whose cough persists, the nurses should monitor for the possibility of atypical pneumonia or pneumonia that requires antibiotic therapy. In these cases, the nurse should arrange a follow-up visit with the clinical team for re-assessment. If an antibiotic is deemed necessary, the pharmacist should evaluate for drug-drug interaction and allergy prior to filling the prescription. If there are any concerns, the pharmacist should make the clinical team aware of potential problems before the drug is dispensed.


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Considering the patient is a healthy young female and does not smoke, the persistent cough most likely is bronchitis. Bronchitis can be classified as acute or chronic depending on the duration of the cough (Sharma et al., 2021). Cough is associated with various etiologies and clinical associations. Coughing is a reflex in which protects against foreign materials, that is part of the body’s immune system (Sharma et al., 2021). Since the patient has been coughing for three weeks, the patient is experiencing acute bronchitis. If cough persist for longer than three months the patient would need be evaluated by a specialist for further investigation.

Acute bronchitis is a common respiratory illness in which its most prevalent symptom is a persist cough that usually last only three weeks. In some case, the cough can last several weeks and still be deemed acute and not chronic. Acute bronchitis is of viral etiology in majority of diagnoses however can at times be bacterial (Sharma et al., 2021). It is causes inflammation of the bronchial walls resulting in mucous thickening. The mucous thickening triggers reflexes to clear the secretions by coughing (Morley et al., 2020).

Clinical manifestations of acute bronchitis vary. The most predominant symptom is a persistent cough usually productive. Other symptoms such as difficulty breathing, chest tightness, and wheezing are also common (Smith et al., 2020).

Risk factors in developing acute bronchitis include influenza, the common cold, allergens, and pollutants (Sharma et al.,2021). The patient presented, states she developed the cough after experiencing a bad cold, therefore the acute bronchitis developed from the illness.

Although acute bronchitis is known to affect mostly children and the elderly due to a decrease in immunity (Sharma et al., 2021).  However, individuals of all ages can develop acute bronchitis. Factors such as age and behavior can greatly impact the development of bronchitis whether acute or chronic. For example, elderly individuals who are smokers are known to be at a higher risk. The patient presented is a female who states to be healthy, however due to behaviors such as social interactions may have worsened symptoms. The patient also should have obtained further medical advice to treat symptoms such as the use of a humidifier to loosen secretions. Since majority of cases are viral, antibiotics are not effective.


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Sharma S, Hashmi MF, Alhajjaj M.(2021)Cough. State Pearls Publishing.

Smith, M. P., Lown, M., Singh, S., Ireland, B., Hill, A. T., Linder, J. A., & Irwin, R. S. (2020). Acute Cough Due to Acute Bronchitis in Immunocompetent Adult Outpatients: CHEST Expert Panel Report. CHEST, 157(5), 1256–1265.…