Give 2 paragraph response to this discussion by Macarena A disease that continues to interest me is Tuberculosis
Give 2 paragraph response to this discussion by Macarena A disease that continues to interest me is Tuberculosis. This highly contagious infection was discovered on March of 1882 by Dr. Robert Koch. This doctors’ discovery to eliminate and control TB was a huge accomplishment since the disease at this point in time would kill one out of seven people in the United States and also in the continent of Europe. “Tuberculosis (TB) is an infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, an acid-fast bacillus that usually affects the lungs, but may invade other body systems” (McCance & Huether, 2019, p. 1188). The symptoms for TB vary depending on whether the bacteria is growing on the persons lungs, or another body system. Also, symptoms vary whether the disease is a “latent infection” or an “active infection” A person that has latent TB experiences no symptoms and does not feel ill or sick, these people are also not contagious but are at a higher risk of developing the disease if no preventative treatment is taken. This happens when a person is exposed to the bacteria, but their bodies can fight the infection; Therefore, the bacteria is in a way “dormant” in your body. For the active infection, it is most common for the bacteria to grow in the lungs and this would cause symptoms such as: chest pain, a lingering cough that last for over three weeks, phlegm, excessive night sweats, decrease in appetite, weight loss, fatigue, fever, chills, and coughing up blood. (CDC, 2018). To treat latent TB infection, several medications can be used to prevent the infection in a single option or used in combination. The medicines are “Isoniazid (INH), Rifapentine (RPT) and Rifampin (RIF)” (CDC, 2018). For active disease these same medicines are used often in combination for a long period of time (usually 6 to 9 months) and the medication must be taken exactly as prescribed. “Since the 1992 peak resurgence in TB occurred (attributable to AIDS), the incidence of TB has declined by 67%. (McCance & Huether, 2019, p. 1188). In the United States, the TB incidents continue to decrease yearly. For instance, data shows that in 2010 the number of cases where 11,088, in 2015 it dropped to 9,539 and the most current data shows that the cases in 2018 where 9,025. “The highest number of cases among racial and ethnic groups occur among Asians and American Indian/Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. In 2015 worldwide, 10.4 million people were diagnosed with TB and 1.8 million died from the disease” (McCance & Huether, 2019, p. 1188). There are major risk contributing factors such as lack of access to screening, homelessness, certain living environments, traveling internationally, and substance abuse which all lead to spreading of the bacteria. These populations are also at higher risk; those who are in contact with recent travelers, those who are immunocompromised, children, people who work or volunteer with those with high risk for TB, and those who have close contact with someone who has the active disease. References Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018). Tuberculosis (TB). Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/tb/default.htm McCance, K.L., & Huether, S.E. (2019). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (8th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.
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